Predictors of depressive symptomatology among rural stimulant users

Raminta Daniulaityte, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, Brenda M. Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This study examined sociodemographic and drug-related predictors of depressive symptoms among a rural, multistate sample of not-in-treatment stimulant drug users (n = 710). Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to measure symptoms of depression. Moderate to severe depressive symptomatology was reported by 43.0% of the sample. Cumulative logistic regression analysis showed that daily and nondaily crack use as well as the daily use of cocaine HCI increased the odds of depressive symptoms. Methamphetamine use had no significant association with depression. The daily use of marijuana, the illicit use of tranquilizers, light/moderate cigarette smoking, and injection drug use also increased the risk of depressive symptoms. Living in Kentucky or Ohio (compared to Arkansas), having unstable living arrangements, and being White, female, and older were related to higher odds of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that a host of drug and nondrug factors need to be considered when addressing depressive symptoms in stimulant users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)435-445
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2010


  • Cocaine HCI
  • Crack cocaine
  • Depression
  • Methamphetamine
  • PHQ-9
  • Rural
  • Substance abuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (all)


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