Preferences Toward COVID-19 Diagnostic Testing Features: Results From a National Cross-Sectional Survey

Bhagyashree Katare, Shuoli Zhao, Joel Cuffey, Maria I. Marshall, Corinne Valdivia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: Describe preferences toward COVID-19 testing features (method, location, hypothetical monetary incentive) and simulate the effect of monetary incentives on willingness to test. Design: Online cross-sectional survey administered in July 2020. Subjects: 1,505 nationally representative U.S. respondents. Measures: Choice of preferred COVID-19 testing options in discrete choice experiment. Options differed by method (nasal-swab, saliva), location (hospital/clinic, drive-through, at-home), and monetary incentive ($0, $10, $20). Analysis: Latent class conditional logit model to classify preferences, mixed logit model to simulate incentive effectiveness. Results: Preferences were categorized into 4 groups: 34% (n = 517) considered testing comfort (saliva versus nasal swab) most important, 27% (n = 408) were willing to trade comfort for monetary incentives, 19% (n = 287) would only test at convenient locations, 20% (n = 293) avoided testing altogether. Relative to no monetary incentives, incentives of $100 increased the percent of testing avoiders (16%) and convenience seekers (70%) that were willing to test. Conclusion: Preferences toward different COVID-19 testing features vary, highlighting the need to match testing features with individuals to monitor the spread of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-189
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Corinne Valdivia received funding from Hatch Multi-State Research program project accession number 227244 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • COVID-19 diagnostic testing
  • discrete choice experiment
  • disease prevention
  • health communications
  • monetary incentive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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