Prevalence of Comorbid Depression and Insomnia Among Veterans Hospitalized for Heart Failure with Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders

Zachary J. Kunicki, Rachel Frietchen, John E. McGeary, Lan Jiang, Matthew S. Duprey, Thomas Bayer, Mriganka Singh, Jennifer M. Primack, Catherine M. Kelso, Wen Chih Wu, James L. Rudolph, Melanie L. Bozzay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine prevalence of Alzheimer Disease and related dementias (ADRD) and patient characteristics as a function of comorbid insomnia and/or depression among heart failure (HF) patients discharged from hospitals. Design: Retrospective cohort descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: VA Hospitals. Participants: N = 373,897 Veterans hospitalized with heart failure from October 1, 2011 until September 30, 2020. Measurements: We examined VA and Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) coding in the year prior to admission using published ICD-9/10 codes for dementia, insomnia, and depression. The primary outcome was the prevalence of ADRD and the secondary outcomes were 30-day and 365-day mortality. Results: The cohort were predominantly older adults (mean age = 72 years, SD = 11), male (97%), and White (73%). Dementia prevalence in participants without insomnia or depression was 12%. In those with both insomnia and depression, dementia prevalence was 34%. For insomnia alone and depression alone, dementia prevalence was 21% and 24%, respectively. Mortality followed a similar pattern with highest 30-day and 365-day mortality higher in those with both insomnia and depression. Conclusions: These results suggest that persons with both insomnia and depression are at an increased risk of ADRD and mortality compared to persons with one or neither condition. Screening for both insomnia and depression, especially in patients with other ADRD risk factors, could lead to earlier identification of ADRD. Understanding comorbid conditions which may represent earlier signs of ADRD may be critical in the identification of ADRD risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)428-437
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry


  • Insomnia
  • dementia
  • depression
  • heart failure
  • veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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