Demonstrated to be highly effective for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has attracted increasing attention owing to its advantages of simple synthesis, relatively low chemical cost, and better biocompatibility as compared to certain ionic liquids. Here we provide a critical review of the status of the design/selection of DES for the pretreatment of biomass feedstocks with an emphasis on the process intensification strategies: 1) integration of microwave, ultrasound, and high solid extrusion for pretreating biomass, 2) one-pot DES pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, 3) strategies for DES recycling and product recovery; and 4) recent progress on molecular simulations toward understanding the interactions between DES and biomass compounds such as lignin and cellulose. Lastly, we provide perspectives toward cost-effective, continuous, high-solid, environmental-benign, and industrial-relevant applications and point to future research directions to address the challenges associated with DES pretreatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128394
JournalBioresource Technology
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Biomass pretreatment
  • Deep eutectic solvent
  • Enzyme hydrolysis
  • Green solvents
  • Lignocellulosic biomass
  • Process intensification
  • Recovery
  • Recycling
  • Techno-economic analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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