Process sustainability evaluation for manufacturing of a component with the 6R application

Ana E. Bonilla Hernandez, Tao Lu, Tomas Beno, Claes Fredriksson, I. S. Jawahir

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Sustainability in manufacturing can be evaluated at product, process and system levels. The 6R methodology for sustainability enhancement in manufacturing processes includes: reduced use of materials, energy, water and other resources; reusing of products/components; recovery and recycling of materials/components; remanufacturing of products; and redesigning of products to utilize recovered materials/resources. Although manufacturing processes can be evaluated by their productivity, quality and cost, process sustainability assessment makes it a complete evaluation. This paper presents a 6R-based evaluation method for sustainable manufacturing in terms of specific metrics within six major metrics clusters: environmental impact, energy consumption, waste management, cost, resource utilization and society/personnel health/operational safety. Manufacturing processes such as casting, welding, turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc., can be evaluated using this methodology. A case study for machining processes is presented as an example based on the proposed metrics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)546-553
Number of pages8
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
StatePublished - 2019
Event16th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, GCSM 2018 - Lexington, United States
Duration: Oct 2 2018Oct 4 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


  • 6R
  • Machining process
  • Manufacturing
  • Sustainability
  • Triple Bottom Line

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


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