Programming Cell-Derived Vesicles with Enhanced Immunomodulatory Properties

Khaga R. Neupane, Geraldine S. Ramon, Brock Harvey, Byeong Chun, Surya P. Aryal, Abdullah A. Masud, J. Robert McCorkle, Jill M. Kolesar, Peter M. Kekenes-Huskey, Christopher I. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tumor-associated macrophages are the predominant immune cells present in the tumor microenvironment and mostly exhibit a pro-tumoral M2-like phenotype. However, macrophage biology is reversible allowing them to acquire an anti-tumoral M1-like phenotype in response to external stimuli. A potential therapeutic strategy for treating cancer may be achieved by modulating macrophages from an M2 to an M1-like phenotype with the tumor microenvironment. Here, programmed nanovesicles are generated as an immunomodulatory therapeutic platform with the capability to re-polarize M2 macrophages toward a proinflammatory phenotype. Programmed nanovesicles are engineered from cellular membranes to have specific immunomodulatory properties including the capability to bidirectionally modulate immune cell polarization. These programmed nanovesicles decorated with specific membrane-bound ligands can be targeted toward specific cell types including immune cells. Macrophage-derived vesicles are engineered to enhance immune cell reprogramming toward a proinflammatory phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2301163
JournalAdvanced healthcare materials
Issue number27
StatePublished - Oct 27 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Healthcare Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • cancer immunotherapy
  • macrophages
  • polarization
  • signaling
  • vesicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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