Prolactin levels: Sex differences in the effects of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone levels, CYP2D6 and ABCB1 variants

Georgios Schoretsanitis, Jose De Leon, Francisco J. Diaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Aim: The role of sex on the association of plasma prolactin levels with risperidone (R) and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OHR) concentrations is investigated. Methods: Plasma R and prolactin concentrations, CYP2D6 and exon 21 and 26 ABCB1 gene variants were studied in 110 patients. Results: In females, a 1 ng/ml increase in R levels was associated with a significant 1.02% increase in prolactin levels. In males, a 1 ng/ml increase in 9-OHR levels was associated with a significant 1.18% increase in prolactin levels. ABCB1 haplotype 12 had significant but opposite effects in males and females. In the combined sample, 9-OHR, but not R levels had significant effects on prolactin levels. Conclusion: Genes had sex-specific effects on risperidone-associated prolactin elevations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)815-823
Number of pages9
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge L Maw at the Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA, who helped in editing this article. The authors are grateful to the reviewers for providing useful suggestions. FJ Diaz was affiliated at the Department of Statistics, Universidad Nacional, Medellin, Colombia when he completed these analyses without additional external support. The original study [7] was supported by several sources: a researcher-initiated grant from the Eli Lilly Research Foundation to J de Leon (24% of direct costs); a NARSAD Independent Award to J Leon (11% of direct costs); internal funding (37% of direct costs); and Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. (CA, USA), which provided free genotyping and laboratory supplies (equivalent to 28% of direct costs). T Cooper (Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York, and New York University School of Medicine, NY, USA) supervised the laboratory analyses of plasma R and prolactin concentrations. Please see the original article for other co-authors

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Future Medicine Ltd.


  • 9-hydroxyrisperidone
  • ABCB1
  • CYP2D6
  • p-glycoprotein
  • prolactin
  • risperidone
  • sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Pharmacology


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