Proprioception of the ankle and knee

Scott M. Lephart, Danny M. Pincivero, Susan L. Rozzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

200 Scopus citations


Proprioception and accompanying neuromuscular feedback mechanisms provide an important component for the establishment and maintenance of functional joint stability. Neuromuscular control and joint stabilisation is mediated primarily by the central nervous system. Multisite sensory input, originating from the somatosensory, visual and vestibular systems, is received and processed by the brain and spinal cord. The culmination of gathered and processed information results in conscious awareness of joint position and motion, unconscious joint stabilisation through protective spinal-mediated reflexes and the maintenance of posture and balance. Clinical research aimed at determining the effects of articular musculoskeletal injury, surgery and rehabilitation, on joint proprioception, neuromuscular control and balance has focused on the knee and ankle joints. Such studies have demonstrated alterations in proprioception subsequent to capsuloligamentous injury, partial restoration of proprioceptive acuity following ligamentous reconstruction, and have suggested beneficial proprioceptive changes resulting from comprehensive rehabilitation programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-155
Number of pages7
JournalSports Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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