Prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1: A novel regulator of progesterone metabolism

Ji Yeon Park, Hyein Jang, Thomas E. Curry, Aiko Sakamoto, Misung Jo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The LH surge reprograms preovulatory follicular cells to become terminally differentiated luteal cells which produce high levels of progesterone and become resistant to apoptosis. PARM1 (prostate androgen regulated mucin-like protein 1) has been implicated in cell differentiation and cell survival in nonovarian cells, but little is known about PARM1 in the ovary. This study demonstrated that the LH surge induced a dramatic increase in Parm1 expression in periovulatory follicles and newly forming CL in both cycling and immature rat models. We further demonstrated that hCG increases Parm1 expression in granulosa cell cultures. The in vitro up-regulation of Parm1 expression was mediated by hCG-activated multiple signaling pathways and transcriptional activation of this gene. Parm1 knockdown increased the viability of cultured granulosa cells but resulted in a decrease in progesterone levels. The inhibitory effect of Parm1 silencing on progesterone was reversed by adenoviral mediated add-back expression of Parm1. Parm1 silencing had little effect on the expression of genes involved in progesterone biosynthesis and metabolism such as Scarb1, Ldlr, Vldlr, Scp2, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b, and Srd5a1, while decreasing the expression of Akr1c3. Analyses of culture media steroid levels revealed that Parm1 knockdown had no effect on pregnenolone levels, while resulting in time-dependent decreases in progesterone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and accelerated accumulation of 5α-pregnanediol. This study revealed that the up-regulation of Parm1 expression promotes progesterone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone accumulation in luteinizing granulosa cells by inhibiting progesterone catabolism to 5α-pregnanediol. PARM1 contributes to ovulation and/or luteal function by acting as a novel regulator of progesterone metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1871-1886
Number of pages16
JournalMolecular Endocrinology
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology


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