1 Scopus citations


Proteins are essential molecules that play crucial roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and carrying out biological functions such as catalyzing biochemical reactions, structural proteins, immune response, etc. However, proteins also are highly susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In this review, we summarize the role of protein oxidation in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The major emphasis of this review article is on the carbonylation and nitration of proteins in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The oxidatively modified proteins showed a strong correlation with the reported changes in brain structure, carbohydrate metabolism, synaptic transmission, cellular energetics, etc., of both MCI and AD brains compared to the controls. Some proteins were found to be common targets of oxidation and were observed during the early stages of AD, suggesting that those changes might be critical in the onset of symptoms and/or formation of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the role of protein oxidation and nitration in the progression and pathogenesis of AD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number574
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • aging
  • amyloid β-peptide
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • protein carbonylation
  • protein nitration
  • protein oxidation
  • reactive nitrogen species
  • reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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