Protocol for optimal detection and exclusion of a patent foramen ovale using transthoracic echocardiography with agitated saline microbubbles

Robert R. Attaran, Imran Ata, Vijayasree Kudithipudi, Laura Foster, Vincent L. Sorrell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

Agitated saline bubble studies in conjunction with echocardiography, in particular transesophageal echocardiography, are currently the principal means in the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale (PFO). We describe techniques and guidelines for the detection and exclusion of a PFO. The potential for misinterpretation of these bubble studies exists and therefore, several false positive and false negative scenarios are illustrated and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-622
Number of pages7
JournalEchocardiography
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2006

Keywords

  • Agitated saline contrast
  • Echocardiography
  • Patent foramen ovale
  • Valsalva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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