Psychological distress among victimized women on probation and parole: A latent class analysis

Seana Golder, Malitta Engstrom, Martin T. Hall, George E. Higgins, T. K. Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psychosocial functioning (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics; informal social support and formal service utilization; perceived life stress; and resource loss). The present research was effective in uncovering important heterogeneity in psychological distress using a highly reliable and easily accessible measure of general psychological distress. Differentiating levels of psychological distress and associated patterns of psychosocial risk can be used to develop intervention strategies targeting the needs of different subgroups of women. Implications for treatment and future research are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-391
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Orthopsychiatric Association.


  • BSI
  • Parole
  • Probation
  • Psychological distress
  • Victimization
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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