Psychometric study of the Portuguese version of the Family Distress Index (FDI)

Gabriela Fonseca, Carla Crespo, Laurie D. McCubbin, Neide Areia, Ana Paula Relvas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Introduction: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Family Distress Index (FDI). The FDI is an 8-item self-report measure that assesses family maladaptation, providing an index of family outcomes within the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. Method: Participants were 459 adults, who completed measures of family distress (FDI) and family functioning (Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation; SCORE-15). Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factorial structure. Results also indicated that the FDI has good internal consistency and temporal stability. The positive and significant correlation between FDI and SCORE- 15= scores demonstrated its convergent validity. Through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we determined a cut-off score of 12 for identifying probable family distress. Discussion: In sum, the Portuguese version of the FDI is a valid and reliable instrument, which can foster the development of future empirical studies focused on family adaptation in diverse contexts of adversity, namely in health care settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-168
Number of pages10
JournalFamilies, Systems and Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Psychological Association.


  • Family distress
  • Family research
  • Outcome measures
  • Psychometric properties
  • Validation study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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