Psychosis and smoking cessation: Difficulties in quitting associated with sex and substance abuse

Ana González-Pinto, Susana Alberich, Sonia Ruiz de Azúa, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Miryam Fernández, Miguel Gutiérrez, Margarita Saenz, Ariadna Besga, Paloma Galdós, Jose de Leon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


No prospective studies of first psychotic episodes have explored sex differences in smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of sex and substance abuse on smoking cessation during an 8-year follow-up of patients after a first psychotic episode. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with smoking cessation by sex. To examine for sex variable interactions, the following two methods were used: 1) for other clinical variables, mixed analyses were calculated; and 2) for use of other substances, logistic regression models were performed only in the substance users. At baseline, 79% of men and 84% of women were current smokers. Lower smoking cessation after 8. years was associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR = 0.30; 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 0.12-0.75) and treatment with typical antipsychotics (OR = 0.30, CIs = 0.10-0.93). In a logistic regression model of alcohol users, those who used alcohol continuously were less likely to stop smoking (adjusted OR = 0.22, CI = 0.05-1.0). Among patients who continued using cannabis, female sex was associated with significant lower smoking cessation (adjusted OR = 0.03, CI = 0.001-0.77). Sex may act as a moderator in smoking cessation after a first psychotic episode. Smoking cessation interventions in these patients should consider sex differences and comorbidity with alcohol and cannabis use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-50
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 30 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Preparation of this article was supported by Health Research Funds from the Spanish Government ( PS09/02002, PI08/90439; PI08/90224; PI081213; PI081536; PI08/0873; EC07/90435; EC07/90666; CD08/00269; CM08/00213 ), CIBER Network (which is an initiative of ISCIII CB07/09/0024; P91A; P91E ), European Regional Development Funds (FEDER) , and by local grants ( GV20009111047; BIO09/EM/010; BIOEF09 and EHU08/54 ). Dr González Pinto is responsible for a specific collaborative agreement between the Spanish Government (SCIII) and the Basque Government to stabilize and intensify research in the National Health System (Boe no. 68 19, March 2010).). These institutions had no further role in the study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation, writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the paper for publication. No pharmaceutical company or commercial organization had any role in the writing of this paper for publication. In the last 12 months, Dr. de Leon was co-investigator with Genomas in a National Institutes of Health grant.


  • Antipsychotic agents
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Female
  • Psychotic disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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