Psychosocial factors and subsequent risk of hospitalizations with peripheral artery disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Yasuyuki Honda, Yejin Mok, Lena Mathews, Jeremy R.Van t. Hof, Gail Daumit, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Elizabeth Selvin, Thomas Mosley, Josef Coresh, Kunihiro Matsushita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background and aims: Psychosocial factors are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, associations with peripheral artery disease (PAD) remain uncharacterized. We aimed to compare associations of psychosocial factors with the risk of PAD and two other major atherosclerotic CVD: coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Methods: In 11,104 participants (mean age 56.7 [SD 5.7] years) without a clinical history of PAD and CHD/stroke at baseline (1990–1992), we evaluated four psychosocial domains: depressive/fatigue symptoms by the Maastricht Questionnaire, social support by the Interpersonal Evaluation List, social networks by the Lubben Scale, and trait anger by the Spielberger Scale. PAD was defined as hospitalizations with diagnosis or related procedures. CHD included adjudicated coronary heart disease and stroke included ischemic stroke. Results: We observed 397 PAD and 1940 CHD/stroke events during a median follow-up of 23.1 years. Higher depressive/fatigue symptoms and less social support were significantly associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratios for top vs. bottom quartile 1.65 [95%CI, 1.25–2.19] and 1.40 [1.05–1.87], respectively). When these factors were simultaneously modeled, only depressive/fatigue symptoms remained significant. Incident CHD/stroke was not associated with either of depressive/fatigue symptoms or social support. Social networks and trait anger were not independently associated with PAD or CHD/stroke. Conclusions: Depressive/fatigue symptoms and social support (especially the former) were independently associated with the risk of hospitalizations with PAD but not CHD/stroke in the general population. Our results support the importance of depressive/fatigue symptoms in vascular health and suggest the need of including PAD when studying the impact of psychosocial factors on CVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-43
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Atherosclerotic disease
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Psychosocial factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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