Purification and structural annealing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes at graphitization temperatures

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, D. Qian, E. C. Dickey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

420 Scopus citations


In this work, we present a systematic study of the effects of graphitization on the structural perfection of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. High purity nanotubes were produced by a low temperature CVD method and subsequently annealed at temperatures between 1600 and 3000°C. The nanotubes were characterized for chemical purity, interlayer spacing, and defect healing. The graphitization procedure was found to remove residual metal catalyst in the nanotubes and reduce the wall defects as reflected in a reduced interlayer spacing between the graphene shells. Graphitization presents a low-cost, commercially viable method of purifying and ordering multiwall carbon nanotubes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1681-1687
Number of pages7
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2001

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Conoco Inc. Technology Center, Ponca City, Oklahoma, who performed the graphitization of the nanotubes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation MRSEC Advanced Carbon Materials Center (DMR-9809686). The authors would also like to thank E. Harlacher, Visiting Scientist at CAER (1999), for his helpful insights.


  • A. Carbon nanotubes
  • B. Graphitization
  • C. X-ray diffraction
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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