Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: The New York University paragraph recall test normative data

Melissa Mathews, Erin Abner, Allison Caban-Holt, Brandon C. Dennis, Richard Kryscio, Frederick Schmitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objectives: Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Method: Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Results: Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. Discussion: The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)776-783
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Alzheimer Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2013


  • Aging
  • Literacy
  • Memory
  • New York university (NYU) paragraph recall
  • Normative data
  • Norms
  • Paragraph recall

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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