Re-examining the Entry-to-Practice PharmD Experiment

Frank Romanelli, Daniel Malcom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Since 2000, the Doctor of Pharmacy degree has served as the entry-level credential for pharmacy practice in the United States, Some 20-plus years following the complete transition to an entry-level clinical doctorate in pharmacy, a re-examination of the outcomes of this move and the trajectory of the profession is merited. Particular attention might be given to the increasing diversity within pharmacy and the myriad of practice types. Regardless of the path forward, intentional and critical appraisals of both the pros and cons of the entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy, as well as the future of pharmacy practice, are warranted. Nursing is a case study in contrast to pharmacy, with its multiple degree and training programs and its hierarchical and graded system of practice. Nursing practice clearly links progressive levels of education to increasing clinical privileges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100016
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy.


  • Doctor of Pharmacy
  • PharmD BS Pharmacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacy


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