Real-time dose control for electron-beam lithography

Yugu Yang-Keathley, Stephen A. Maloney, J. Todd Hastings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Shot-to-shot, or pixel-to-pixel, dose variation during electron-beam lithography is a significant practical and fundamental problem. Dose variations associated with charging, electron source instability, optical system drift, and ultimately shot noise in the e-beam itself conspire to critical dimension variability, line width/edge roughness, and limited throughput. It would be an important improvement to e-beam based patterning technology if real-time feedback control of electron-dose were provided so that pattern quality and throughput would be improved beyond the shot noise limit. In this paper, we demonstrate control of e-beam dose based on the measurement of electron arrival at the sample where patterns are written, rather than from the source or another point in the electron optical column. Our results serve as the first steps towards real-time dose control and eventually overcoming the shot noise.

Original languageEnglish
Article number095302
Issue number9
StatePublished - Feb 26 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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