Real-time in situ monitoring of human prostate photodynamic therapy with diffuse light

Guoqiang Yu, Turgut Durduran, Chao Zhou, Timothy C. Zhu, Jarod C. Finlay, Theresa M. Busch, S. Bruce Malkowicz, Stephen M. Hahn, Arjun G. Yodh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires oxygen to cause cellular and vascular tumor damage. Tissue oxygen concentration, in turn, is influenced by blood flow and blood oxygenation. Real-time clinical measurement of these hemodynamic quantities, however, is rare. This paper reports the development and application of a probe, combining diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for measurement of tumor blood oxygenation and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for measurement of tumor blood flow. The instrument was adapted for clinical use during interstitial prostate PDT. Three patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer received 2 mg/kg motexafin lutetium (MLu) 3 h before illumination and a total light dose of 100 J/cm2 at 150 mW/cm. Prostrate blood oxygen saturation (StO2) decreased only slightly (∼3%) after treatment. On the other hand, prostate blood flow and total hemoglobin concentration over the course of PDT decreased by 50% and 15%, respectively, suggesting MLu-mediated PDT has an anti-vascular effect. While it is certainly impossible to draw definite conclusions from measurements of only three patients, the observed differences in tumor blood flow and blood oxygenation responses during PDT can, in principle, be used to choose among tissue oxygen consumption models and therefore emphasize the potential clinical value for simultaneous monitoring of both parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1279-1284
Number of pages6
JournalPhotochemistry and Photobiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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