Reconstruction of complex cranial wounds with demineralized bone matrix and bilayer artificial skin

M. A. Shermak, L. Wong, N. Inoue, T. Nicol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Complex wounds involving loss of both cranium and scalp are difficult to reconstruct. Current solutions include both autogenous and alloplastic materials. Tissue engineering provides interesting alternatives for reconstruction of missing bone and soft tissue. Demineralized bone matrix and Integra, artificial bilayer skin substitute, have been used successfully to reconstruct bone and skin as isolated defects, but never in combination. This study investigates the possibility of using demineralized bone matrix in a gel carrier and Integra for combined cranial and scalp defects. The study was divided into two parts. In the first, demineralized bone matrix in the forms of Grafton Flex (n = 12) and Grafton putty (n = 12) was used to reconstruct 15-mm critical size cranial defects in female adult New Zealand White rabbits. In the control group (n = 6), the defect was left empty. The second part of the study investigated the use of Integra and Grafton Flex to reconstruct a 15-mm cranial defect with an overlying full-thickness scalp defect (n = 6). The first study revealed bony healing of the critical-size cranial defect with demineralized bone matrix. The second study demonstrated successful reconstitution of scalp and cranium with both demineralized bone matrix and Integra. We conclude that complex cranial defects involving bone and soft tissue may be successfully reconstructed with their tissue-engineered substrates, demineralized bone matrix (Grafton) and Integra artificial skin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-231
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000


  • Animal study
  • Artificial skin
  • Cranial wounds
  • Demineralized bone matrix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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