Recycling of bone ash from animal wastes and by-products in the production of novel cements

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the utilization of animal wastes and by-products in the production of low-energy and low-CO2 clinkers and cements in order to preserve natural resources, such as limestone, while reducing CO2 emissions released from the cement manufacturing process and reducing potential health risk to the world population (such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or other health issues…). Pure calcium sulfoaluminate clinker was produced with calcium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate; followed by additional clinkers produced from substituting calcium hydroxide with bone ash (from 0 to 100% of the calcium hydroxide replaced). The final clinkers contained various amounts of ye'elimite, calcium aluminate phases, as well as tricalcium phosphate, depending on the firing temperature. Finally, some preliminary results on the hydration process and compressive strength are provided for the production of these binders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3720-3735
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Shelley Hopps from the CAER analytical laboratory for providing the XRF and XRD analyses.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The American Ceramic Society.


  • calcium aluminate cements
  • calcium phosphate
  • mechanical properties
  • waste disposal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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