Reducing implicit racial preferences: II. Intervention effectiveness across time

Calvin K. Lai, Erin Cooley, Thierry Devos, Y. Jenny Xiao, Stefanie Simon, Jennifer A. Joy-Gaba, Gina Roussos, Fabian M.H. Schellhaas, Xiaoqing Hu, Jordan R. Axt, Kathleen Schmidt, Maddalena Marini, Jiyun Elizabeth L. Shin, Allison L. Skinner, Sohad Murrar, Markus Brauer, Jimmy Calanchini, Christina Pedram, Christopher K. Marshburn, John C. BlancharJohn Conway, Liz Redford, Rick A. Klein, Mason Burns, Meghan C. McLean, Shaki Asgari, Rachel Rubinstein, Sandro Rubichi, Brian A. Nosek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

402 Scopus citations


Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1001-1016
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Psychological Association.


  • Attitudes
  • Implicit association test
  • Implicit social cognition
  • Malleability
  • Racial prejudice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • General Psychology
  • Developmental Neuroscience


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