Reduction of carcinogenic chromium(VI) on the skin of living rats

Ke Jian Liu, Karsten Mäder, Xianglin Shi, Harold M. Swartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The reduction of chromate (Cr(VI)) on the skin of living rats was investigated using the technique of in vivo electron para-magnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with a surface coil resonator. Topical application of aqueous solution of Cr(VI) on the skin of rats generated the transient species, Cr(V). Partial removal of the stratum corneum increased the rates of formation and decay of Cr(V), as well as Cr(V) signal intensity. The results demonstrate that skin represents one route for chromium to enter into animals and humans. The generation of reactive Cr(V) species in the reduction of Cr(VI) by the skin may play an important role in the mechanism of Cr(VI)- induced skin cancer. These findings indicate the potential for in vivo EPR spectroscopy for studying the metabolism of para-magnetic reactive species in chemical and biochemical reactions occurring in/on the skin of both small and large animals, and possibly humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)524-526
Number of pages3
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1997


  • Chromium
  • In vivo EPR
  • Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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