Regional antibody and cellular immune responses to equine influenza virus infection, and particle mediated DNA vaccination

G. Soboll, D. W. Horohov, B. M. Aldridge, C. W. Olsen, M. W. McGregor, R. J. Drape, M. D. Macklin, W. F. Swain, D. P. Lunn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


We have previously demonstrated that hemagglutinin (HA) gene vaccination and influenza virus infection generate protective antibody responses in equids. However, these antibody responses differ substantially in that particle mediated DNA vaccination does not induce an immunoglobulin A (IgA) response. A study was performed to investigate the regional immunoregulatory mechanisms associated with these different immune responses. Ponies were either vaccinated with equine HA DNA vaccines at skin and mucosal sites, infected with influenza virus or left untreated and influenza-specific antibody responses and protection from challenge infection was studied. In a subset of ponies, lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBLs), nasopharyngeal mucosal tissue, or lymph nodes (LNLs) were collected for measurement of influenza virus-specific lymphoproliferative responses, local antibody production and IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA production by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). DNA vaccination and influenza virus infection induced humoral immunoglobulin Ga (IgGa) and immunoglobulin Gb (IgGb) production and lymphoproliferative responses that were positively correlated with IFN-γ mRNA production. However, there were marked differences in immune response in that only influenza infection induced an IgA response, and the regional distribution of lymphoproliferation, IFN-γ and antibody responses. Responses to DNA vaccination occurred in PBLs and in lymph nodes draining DNA vaccination sites, while influenza virus infection induced responses in PBLs and hilar LNLs. In summary, common features of immune responses to either influenza virus infection or DNA vaccination were virus-specific IgGa, IgGb and IFN-γ responses, which are associated with protection from infection, even when the regional distribution of these immune responses varied depending on the site of immune encounter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-62
Number of pages16
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jul 15 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was entirely supported by a grant from the Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation and an Animal Health grant from the UW-Madison Agricultural Experiment Station. The authors are grateful to Dr. Rick Nordheim, University of Wisconsin, Madison, for assistance with statistical analysis.


  • Infectious immunity virus
  • Vaccination
  • Viral immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • General Veterinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Regional antibody and cellular immune responses to equine influenza virus infection, and particle mediated DNA vaccination'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this