Regulatory significance of procaine residues in plasma and urine samples: Preliminary communication

J. D. Harkins, G. D. Mundy, S. Stanley, W. E. Woods, J. Boyles, R. A. Arthur, R. A. Sams, T. Tobin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Plasma and urinary concentrations of procaine and the duration of response to procaine after its administration as a local anaesthetic to horses were studied. Following injection of a clinical dose of procaine HCl (80 mg), the concentration of procaine in plasma was less than the lower limit of quantitation and unsuitable for threshold determination. Therefore, the urinary concentration of procaine was determined after injection of a dose of 5 mg procaine HCl, the highest no-effect dose (HNED) of this agent. Free unconjugated procaine in equine urine reached a peak concentration of 23.7 ng/ml, while total (unconjugated plus conjugated) procaine peaked at 37.9 ng/ml (mean urine pH of 8.5). Because a basic drug may concentrate substantially in acidic urine, a threshold concentration of 25 ng/ml of unconjugated procaine is a reasonable and conservative threshold for procaine at this time. Horses were administered abaxial sesamoid blocks containing 2% procaine HCl (40, 80, 160 and 320 mg) and 2% procaine HCl (40 and 320 mg) with epinephrine (1:100,000) in local anaesthetic experiments. There was a significant local anaesthetic (LA) effect for all doses of procaine HCl with the duration of effect ranging from 30 min (40 mg) to 60 min (320 mg). The addition of epinephrine significantly increased the duration of local anaesthesia to 180 min for a 40 mg dose and 420 min for a 320 mg dose. Because epinephrine may extend the duration of local anaesthesia beyond a reasonable period of confinement for horses before the starting time of a race, the increased LA effect following the addition of epinephrine to procaine has regulatory significance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-125
Number of pages5
JournalEquine Veterinary Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1996


  • Horse
  • Plasma
  • Procaine
  • Urine samples

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine


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