Relative bioavailability of organic and hydroxy copper sources in growing steers fed a high antagonist diet

Katherine R. Vanvalin, Olivia N. Genther-Schroeder, Scott B. Laudert, Stephanie L. Hansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


To assess relative bioavailability (RBV) of hydroxy and organic Cu sources compared with CuSO4 in steers fed a high Cu antagonist diet, 84 steers were stratified by BW to pens randomly assigned to dietary treatments for 90 d. Steers received a common corn silage-based diet supplemented with Cu antagonists (diet analyzed 0.25% S; 6.8 mg Mo/kg DM). Supplemental (SUPP) Cu treatments included: control (CON; no SUPP Cu), low or high inorganic (ING5 or ING10; 5 or 10 mg Cu/kg DM from CuSO4; Old Bridge Chemical Inc., Old Bridge, NJ, USA), low or high organic (ORG5 or ORG10; 5 or 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu lysine; CuPlex 100, ZinPro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN), and low or high hydroxy (HYD5 or HYD10; 5 or 10 mg Cu/kg DM; IntelliBond CII, Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN). Body weights were recorded on days-7,-6, 28, 56, 84, and 85, and plasma samples collected on days-7, 28, 56, and 85. Liver samples were collected to start and end the trial. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS and the model included treatment with initial liver Cu values used as a covariate in analysis of final liver Cu. Contrast statements were used to separate treatment means: 0 vs. 5 mg SUPP Cu/ kg DM, 0 vs. 10 mg SUPP Cu/kg DM, 5 vs. 10 mg SUPP Cu/kg DM, HYD vs. ORG, HYD vs. ING, and ORG vs. ING. Initial liver Cu concentrations were similar across all treatment comparisons (P ≥ 0.22). Final liver Cu concentrations were lesser in CON compared with either 5 or 10 mg Cu/ kg DM (P ≤ 0.001). Final liver concentrations were lesser in ORG compared with HYD and ING (P ≤ 0.009), but HYD was similar to ING (P = 0.14). There was a treatment × time interaction (P ≤ 0.001) for plasma Cu concentrations where CON exhibited a rapid decline in plasma Cu, steers receiving 5 mg SUPP Cu/kg DM were decreased to a greater extent in ORG, and steers supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM did not differ at the end of the trial. Assessment of RBV was conducted for liver and plasma Cu concentrations using a slope-ratio assay in the GLM procedure. The RBV of Cu tended (P = 0.07) to be increased in HYD (112%) compared with ING (100%) for liver Cu values, but RBV was similar for all other source comparisons based on liver and plasma Cu values (P ≥ 0.22). These data suggest in steers fed high antagonist diets hydroxy Cu may be more available. Based on plasma and liver Cu concentrations, supplementation of 10 mg Cu/kg DM is needed to maintain Cu status in cattle fed diets high in S and Mo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1375-1383
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
1This study was funded by Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN. 2Current address: Purina Animal Nutrition, Gray Summit, MO 63039 3Corresponding author: Received October 11, 2018. Accepted December 22, 2018.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society of Animal Science.


  • bioavailability
  • cattle
  • copper
  • molybdenum
  • sulfur

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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