Reliability and validity of medicine ball toss tests as clinical measures of core strength

Mallory A. Sell, John P. Abt, Timothy C. Sell, Karen A. Keenan, Katelyn F. Allison, Mita T. Lovalekar, Scott M. Lephart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Core strengthening is a significant component of training programs utilized to optimize athletic performance, reduce injury, and facilitate return from injury. Reliable and valid clinical measures of core strength are necessary to determine the effectiveness of these programs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to determine the reliability and validity of three medicine ball toss tests (MBTs). METHODS: A total of 20 healthy, physically active individuals participated. Session one included isokinetic strength testing (trunk flexion/extension, and right/left rotation) andMBTs (forward, backward, and right/left rotation); session two included only the MBTs. Average peak torque during strength testing and the average distance of three MBTs in each direction were analyzed. Intraclass correlations were calculated to determine the reliability of the MBTs between sessions, while validity between MBTs and strength was assessed though Pearson correlations. RESULTS: Significant ICCs were observed between forward, backward, and right/left rotation MBTs (ICC = 0.835; ICC = 0.835; ICC = 0.870; ICC = 0.909; p < 0.001, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between the MBTs and corresponding measures of strength. CONCLUSION: Results illustrate that MBTs have excellent reliability but are not related to isokinetic strength as measured by average peak torque. This lack of relationship may be due to differences in muscles examined, contraction type, and/or motion performed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-160
Number of pages10
JournalIsokinetics and Exercise Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 4 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 - IOS Press and the authors.


  • Strength and conditioning
  • abdominal strength
  • core strength
  • injury prevention
  • performance optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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