Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle

Bethan Roberts, Tory Eisenlohr-Moul, Michelle M. Martel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N = 32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35 days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-114
Number of pages10
JournalPsychoneuroendocrinology
Volume88
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ( M.M., UL1R000117 ), National Institute of Mental Health ( T.E., T32MH093315 ; K99MH109667 ), and National Institute on Drug Abuse ( M.M., DA005312 ; DA035150 ). We thank the participants who made this work possible.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (M.M., UL1R000117), National Institute of Mental Health (T.E., T32MH093315; K99MH109667), and National Institute on Drug Abuse (M.M., DA005312; DA035150). We thank the participants who made this work possible.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Estradiol
  • Progesterone
  • Reproductive steroid hormones
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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