Resistance to Fipronil in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

María A. González-Morales, Zachary Devries, Angela Sierras, Richard G. Santangelo, Madhavi L. Kakumanu, Coby Schal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cimex lectularius L. populations have been documented worldwide to be resistant to pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, insecticides that have been widely used to control bed bugs. There is an urgent need to discover new active ingredients with different modes of action to control bed bug populations. Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole that targets the GABA receptor, has been shown to be highly effective on bed bugs. However, because fipronil shares the same target site with dieldrin, we investigated the potential of fipronil resistance in bed bugs. Resistance ratios in eight North American populations and one European population ranged from 1.4- to >985-fold, with highly resistant populations on both continents. We evaluated metabolic resistance mechanisms mediated by cytochrome P450s, esterases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases using synergists and a combination of synergists. All four detoxification enzyme classes play significant but variable roles in bed bug resistance to fipronil. Suppression of P450s and esterases with synergists eliminated resistance to fipronil in highly resistant bed bugs. Target-site insensitivity was evaluated by sequencing a fragment of the Rdl gene to detect the A302S mutation, known to confer resistance to dieldrin and fipronil in other species. All nine populations were homozygous for the wild-type genotype (susceptible phenotype). Highly resistant populations were also highly resistant to deltamethrin, suggesting that metabolic enzymes that are responsible for pyrethroid detoxification might also metabolize fipronil. It is imperative to understand the origins of fipronil resistance in the development or adoption of new active ingredients and implementation of integrated pest management programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1798-1807
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume58
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords

  • Cimex lectularius
  • bed bugs
  • fipronil
  • insecticide resistance
  • synergist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Veterinary (all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

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