The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises complex interactions of multiple cell types that determines cell behavior and metabolism such as nutrient competition and immune suppression. We discuss the various types of heterogeneity that exist in solid tumors, and the complications this invokes for studies of TME. As human subjects and in vivo model systems are complex and difficult to manipulate, simpler 3D model systems that are compatible with flexible experimental control are necessary for studying metabolic regulation in TME. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) is a valuable tool for tracing metabolic networks in complex systems, but at present does not directly address heterogeneous metabolism at the individual cell level. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of different model systems for SIRM experiments, with a focus on lung cancer cells, their interactions with macrophages and T cells, and their response to modulators in the immune microenvironment. We describe the experimental set up, illustrate results from 3D cultures and co-cultures of lung cancer cells with human macrophages, and outline strategies to address the heterogeneous TME.
|Number of pages||26|
|State||Published - 2020|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- 3D cultures
- Stable isotope resolved metabolomics
- Tissue slices
- Tumor microenvironment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology