Chronic periodontal diseases include a group of inflammatory diseases that affect periodontal supporting tissues of the teeth and encompass destructive and nondestructive conditions. Periodontal diseases are multifactorial and the role of dental biofilm in their initiation is primary. However, whether dental biofilm affects a particular subject, what form the disease takes and how it progresses, are all dependent of a wide variety of factors. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to outline the risk factors described for the most prevalent chronic periodontal diseases (plaque induced gingivitis and chronic periodontitis) and to explain some basic concepts related to the current understanding of the role of these risk factors based on in vitro, animal and human studies. The review will focus on the factors that may be associated with a direct increase in the likelihood of occurrence of disease or an increase in its severity. The following factors will be discussed: 1) host characteristics, such as age, gender and race; 2) social and behavioral factors (socioeconomic status, cigarette smoking and emotional stress); 3) systemic factors, e.g. diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis; 4) genetic factors; 5) tooth-level factors (root grooves, tooth position, caries, occlusal discrepancies, iatrogenic restorations, root abnormalities and periodontal parameters); and 6) the microbial composition of dental biofilm. Finally, this chapter will also present literature-based evidence on predictive factors associated with patients and tooth susceptibility for recurrence of periodontitis after the end of the active periodontal therapy and will examine the use of some prognostic models which may be useful for clinicians in the identification high-risk groups of patients.
|Title of host publication||Periodontitis|
|Subtitle of host publication||Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention|
|Number of pages||33|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2010|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Dentistry (all)