The role of the hydrogen bonding interaction with the N(3)H of the flavin cofactor in the modulation of the redox properties of flavoproteins has not been extensively investigated. In the flavodoxin from Clostridium beijerinckii, the γ-carboxylate group of glutamate-59 serves as a dual hydrogen bond acceptor with the N(3)H of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and the amide hydrogen of the adjacent polypeptide backbone in all three oxidation states. This "bridging" interaction serves to anchor the FMN in the binding site, which, based on the E59Q mutant, indirectly affects the stability of the neutral flavin semiquinone by facilitating a strong and critical interaction at the FMN N(5)H [Bradley, L. H., and Swenson, R. P. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 12377-12386]. In this study, the specific role of the N(3)H interaction itself was investigated through the systematic replacement of Glu59 by aspartate, asparagine, and alanine in an effort to weaken, disrupt, and/or eliminate this interaction, respectively. Just as for the E59Q mutant, each replacement significantly weakened the binding of the cofactor, particularly for the semiquinone state, affecting the midpoint potentials of each one-electron couple in opposite directions. 1H-15N HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies revealed that not only was the N(3)H interaction weakened as anticipated, but so also was the hydrogen bonding interaction with the N(5)H. Using the temperature coefficients of the N(5)H to quantify and correct for changes in this interaction, the contribution of the N(3)H hydrogen bond to the binding of each redox state of the FMN was isolated and estimated. Based on this analysis, the N(3)H hydrogen bonding interaction appears to contribute primarily to the stability of the oxidized state (by as much as 2 kcal/mol) and to a lesser extent the reduced states. It is concluded that this interaction contributes only modestly (<45 mV) to the modulation of the midpoint potential for each redox couple in the flavodoxin. These conclusions are generally consistent with ab initio calculations and model studies on the non-protein-bound cofactor.
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - Jul 31 2001|
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