Role of Par-4 in prostate cancer

Nidhi Shukla, Nikhil K. Hebbar, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. This specificity toward cancer cells is attributed to the effector domain of Par-4 known as "Selective for apoptosis in cancer cells" (SAC) domain. Par-4 sensitizes cells to the action of diverse apoptotic stimuli that ultimately causes tumor regression. Recent studies have shown that the Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells, and extracellular Par-4 induces apoptosis by interacting with the cell-surface receptor Glucoseregulated protein 78 (GRP78). GRP78 is a resident protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that selectively translocates to the surface of cancer cells. This article emphasizes the role of Par-4, as well as the SAC in apoptosis and tumor resistance in mice. SAC transgenic mice, which are resistant to spontaneous as well as autochthonous tumors are described, along with mechanistic insights gained from the interaction of Par-4/SAC and GRP78. The cancer-selective traits of Par-4/SAC make it an ideal choice for cancer therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProstate Cancer
Subtitle of host publicationBiochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781461468288
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Mayo Clinic 2013. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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