The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is among the most complex systems in the body. It has a diverse commensal microbiome challenged continuously by food and microbial components while delivering essential nutrients and defending against pathogens. For these reasons, regulatory cells and receptors are likely to play a central role in maintaining the gut mucosal homeostasis. Recent lessons from cancer immunotherapy point out the critical role of the B7 negative co-stimulator PD-L1 in mucosal homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge supporting the critical role of PD-L1 in gastrointestinal mucosal tolerance and how abnormalities in its expression and signaling contribute to gut inflammation and cancers. Abnormal expression of PD-L1 and/or the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathways have been observed in the pathology of the GI tract. We also discuss the current gap in our knowledge with regards to PD-L1 signaling in the GI tract under homeostasis and pathology. Finally, we summarize the current understanding of how this pathway is currently targeted to develop novel therapeutic approaches.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
ThisThisstudystudywas supported byby NCINCI R01CA207051 (to(to E.J.B.) andand byby NIDDK R01DK103150 (to I.V.P.).
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- Gastrointestinal inflammation
- Inflammatory bowel disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry