Safety and immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR, prepared from new master and working cell banks

Wilbur H. Chen, Richard N. Greenberg, Marcela F. Pasetti, Sofie Livio, Michael Lock, Marc Gurwith, Myron M. Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations

Abstract

Currently, no cholera vaccine is available for persons traveling from the United States to areas of high cholera transmission and who for reasons of occupation or host factors are at increased risk for development of the disease. A single-dose oral cholera vaccine with a rapid onset of protection would be particularly useful for such travelers and might also be an adjunct control measure for cholera outbreaks. The attenuated Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR harbors a 94% deletion of the cholera toxin A subunit gene (ctxA) and has a mercury resistance gene inserted in the gene encoding hemolysin A. We undertook a phase I randomized placebo-controlled two-site trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a preliminary formulation of CVD 103-HgR prepared from new master and working cell banks. Healthy young adults were randomized (5: 1 vaccinees to placebo recipients) to receive a single oral dose of ∼4.4 × 108 CFU of vaccine or a placebo. Blood serum vibriocidal and cholera toxin-specific IgG antibodies were measured before and 10,14, and 28 days following vaccination or placebo. Excretion of the vaccine strain in the stool was assessed during the first week postvaccination. A total of 66 subjects were enrolled, comprising 55 vaccinees and 11 placebo recipients. The vaccine was well tolerated. The overall vibriocidal and anti-cholera toxin seroconversion rates were 89% and 57%, respectively. CVD 103-HgR is undergoing renewed manufacture for licensure in the United States under the auspices of PaxVax. Our data mimic those from previous commercial formulations that elicited vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (a correlate of protection) in ∼90% of vaccinees.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-73
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Vaccine Immunology
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology (medical)

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