Salivary Biomarkers, Oral Inflammation, and Functional Status in Patients With Heart Failure

Rebecca L. Dekker, Terry A. Lennie, Debra K. Moser, Craig S. Miller, Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Misook L. Chung, Charles L. Campbell, Alison Bailey, Elizabeth G. Tovar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Aims: To describe correlations and agreement between salivary and serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 and determine which biomarkers predict worse functional class in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods: Serum and saliva were collected from 75 hospitalized patients with HF (57 ± 12 years, 43% female, New York Heart Association [NYHA] Classes I [4%], II [43%], and III [53%]). Oral inflammation was rated as good, fair, or poor. Spearman’s ρ and Bland–Altman were used to determine correlations and agreement of the salivary and serum forms of each biomarker. Logistic regressions were used to determine which biomarkers predicted worse NYHA functional class, controlling for depression, body mass index, smoking, and oral inflammation. Results: Median biomarker concentrations were as follows: BNP (serum 361 pg/ml, saliva 9 pg/ml), CRP (serum 13 ng/ml, saliva 25.6 ng/ml), IL-6 (serum 19.3 pg/ml, saliva 10.5 pg/ml), and IL-10 (serum 64.1 pg/ml, saliva 4.7 pg/ml). There was a moderate-to-strong correlation for serum–salivary CRP, weak correlation for serum–salivary IL-6, and no correlations for serum–salivary BNP and IL-10. The Bland–Altman test showed good salivary–serum agreement for all biomarkers, but as serum concentrations rose, salivary measures underestimated serum levels. Visible oral inflammation was the only predictor of worse NYHA class.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalBiological Research for Nursing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


  • B-type natriuretic peptide
  • cytokines
  • inflammatory biomarkers
  • periodontal disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Research and Theory


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