Scholarly Editing and AI: Machine Predicted Text and Herculaneum Papyri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


In 2016 the Digital Restoration Initiative (DRI) at the University of Kentucky, under the direction of Professor Brent Seales, virtually unrolled a carbonized parchment scroll from Ein Gedi, revealing a copy of Leviticus written in iron gall ink. In 2019 the DRI applied a new machine learning method to reveal a Greek character written in carbon ink from an actual Herculaneum papyrus fragment. Virtual unwrapping of cultural heritage objects is a reality. The application of machine and deep learning methods to enhance difficult-to-detect ink signals in tomography will continue to evolve. This raises an important question. How will the process of editing texts that are 'true-born virtual' (the object can never be opened to verify the results) change to reflect the presence and dependency on AI? This paper produces a theoretical model for how a critical edition of a virtually unwrapped papyrus text must document the role of the machine. It also engages the possible requirements, in terms of Data Science, that this new type of text compels in order to ensure transparency at the level of its 'birth'. Put simply, a new virtual edition model that is a fusion of humanities and science is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-70
Number of pages26
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Ca' Foscari University Department of Humanities. All rights reserved.


  • AI
  • Born-virtual text
  • Herculaneum
  • Papyri
  • Scholarly editions
  • Textual criticism
  • Tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Archaeology
  • Literature and Literary Theory
  • Museology
  • Archaeology


Dive into the research topics of 'Scholarly Editing and AI: Machine Predicted Text and Herculaneum Papyri'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this