School disciplinary climate: Characteristics and effects on eighth grade achievement

Xin Ma, J. Douglas Willms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Seven dimensions of school disciplinary climate were identified based on a representative sample of grade 8 students in the United States. Within schools students varied considerably in their perceptions and experiences about discipline. The variation was related mainly to students' socioeconomic status (SES), sex, and ethnicity. There was a significant contextual effect of school mean SES on disciplinary climate, larger than the individual effect of SES. Schools with primary or intermediate grades tended to have more favorable disciplinary climates than either junior or senior high schools. School location had small effects on disciplinary climate. The disciplinary measure with the strongest relationship to academic achievement pertained to classroom disruption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-188
Number of pages20
JournalAlberta Journal of Educational Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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