Season of birth: A predictor of ADHD symptoms in early midlife

Chenshu Zhang, Judith S. Brook, Carl G. Leukefeld, Mario De La Rosa, David W. Brook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: In this longitudinal study, we applied linear regression analyses to examine season of birth as related to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early midlife. Method: We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. Findings: The findings indicate that, as compared with participants who were born in the summer, those who were born in the spring (Beta = 0.34; t-statistic = 3.59; p < 0.001) had significantly more ADHD symptoms. In addition, exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in adolescence significantly intensified (p < 0.01) the association between season of birth and ADHD symptoms in early midlife. Conclusion: These findings suggest that exposure to greater maternal maladaptive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, may result in a greater vulnerability to other environmental risk factors, such as season of birth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-248
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
StatePublished - Sep 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by NIH grants DA032603 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse , and CA122128 from the National Cancer Institute, awarded to Dr. Judith S. Brook.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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