Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Hawthorn Spider Mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Under Acaricide Treatments

Yuying Zhang, Zhonghuan Zhang, Meifeng Ren, Xiangying Liu, Xuguo Zhou, Jing Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Hawthorn spider mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis Zacher, one of the most damaging arthropod pests for Rosaceaous fruit trees and ornamentals, has developed resistance to most of the commercially available acaricides. To understand the molecular basis of acaricide resistance, a standardized protocol for real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) following the MIQE (minimum information for publication of quantitative real time PCR experiments) guidelines is needed. In this study, we screened for the internal references in A. viennensis to study in acaricide resistance. In total, 10 candidate reference genes, including EF1A, 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, α-tubulin, Actin3, RPS9, GAPDH, V-ATPase B, RPL13, and V-ATPase A, were assessed under the treatments of four commonly used acaricides with distinct mode-of-actions (MOAs). Based on the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee MOA classification, avermectin, bifenazate, spirodiclofen, and fenpropathrin belong to group 6, 20D, 23, and 3A, respectively. The expression profiles of these candidate genes were evaluated using geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt methods, respectively. Eventually, different sets of reference genes were recommended for each acaricide according to RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all four above-mentioned algorithms. Specifically, the top three recommendations were 1) 28S, V-ATPase A, and Actin 3 for avermectin, 2) GAPDH, RPS9, and 28S for bifenazate, 3) Actin 3, V-ATPase B, and α-tubulin for spirodiclofen, and 4) Actin 3, α-tubulin, and V-ATPase A for fenpropathrin. Although unique sets of genes are proposed for each acaricide, α-tubulin, EF1A, and GAPDH are the most consistently stably expressed reference genes when A. viennensis was challenged chemically. Our findings lay the foundation for the study of acaricide resistance in the phytophagous mites in general, and in the hawthorn spider mite, A. viennensis, in particular.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)662-670
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Economic Entomology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


  • Amphitetranychus viennensis
  • RT-qPCR
  • acaricide
  • hawthorn spider mite
  • reference gene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Insect Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Hawthorn Spider Mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Under Acaricide Treatments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this