Self-reported versus observed classroom activities in elementary general music

Cecilia Chu Wang, David W. Sogin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


This study compared self-reported music class activity time use and actual time use of general music teachers. Responses from a questionnaire provided self-report data regarding general music instruction from 45 elementary general music teachers participating in a one-day Orff-Schulwerk workshop, whereas observed data were obtained by time analysis on videotaped lessons taught by 19 teachers from the same group. Variables observed included student activities and teacher behaviors. Student activities were measured as the amount of time spent in reading, listening, singing, describing, playing, creating, and moving to music; teachers were observed for the amount of talking or modeling as well as the provision of academic and social reinforcement. Comparison of self-reported activity estimates and time-analyzed data indicate that the teachers' own estimate of time use is greater than is the actual time recorded for each music activity. Additional findings related to general music teaching, teaching intensity, and effectiveness. Correlations among activities are also reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-456
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Research in Music Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Music


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