Serotonin‐like immunoreactivity in the adult and developing retina of the leopard frog Rana pipiens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Recent work in nonmammalian vertebrate retinas has suggested that other cell types besides the generally accepted amacrine cells may contain serotonin. We have used immunocytochemical methods to study serotonin‐like immunoreactivity (5‐HTLI) in the retina of the developing and mature frog Rana pipiens. In the adult, two types of serotonin immunoreactive (5‐HT‐ir) cells were found in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the retina. Additionally, a large population of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer (RGCL) had 5‐HTLI. These cells were grouped into three types based on their soma size and their primary dendritic branching pattern. The optic nerve fiber layer was also intensely stained with serotonin antisera although staining intensity decreased progressively as the fibers approached the optic nerve head. Severing the optic nerve resulted in 5‐HT‐ir elements that extended up the optic nerve shaft from the lesion site toward the retina. Both regional and temporal changes in the pattern of 5‐HTLI were seen. In middle regions of retina, approximately 30% of the cells in the RGCL were 5‐HT‐ir. Nasal and temporal regions of central retina had significantly fewer 5‐HT‐ir cells. Early in development only scattered cells in the RGCL were 5‐HT‐ir. As the animals matured there was an increase in both the proportion and the staining intensity of these cells. Our results suggest that in studying the function and development of the visual system in this animal, the role of serotonin must be examined. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-404
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 15 1993


  • amacrine cells
  • retinal ganglion cells
  • visual system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Serotonin‐like immunoreactivity in the adult and developing retina of the leopard frog Rana pipiens'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this