Serum metabolite profiles and target tissue gene expression define the effect of cholecalciferol intake on calcium metabolism in rats and mice

James C. Fleet, Christy Gliniak, Zhentao Zhang, Yingben Xue, Kathleen B. Smith, Rebecca McCreedy, Sunday A. Adedokun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations

Abstract

We studied the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) intake on VD3 status and markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis in mice and rats. Serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OH-VD3) concentrations were increased in animals fed diets containing 400-20,000 international units (IU) VD3/kg (37 nmol·L-1·1000 IU VD3-1), but body weight, serum Ca, and duodenal gene expression were not altered. High-VD3 intake decreased serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2-VD3] and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1αhydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA, suggesting that rodents tolerate high-VD3 intake by suppressing the activity of the VD3 endocrine system. Serum 25OH-VD3 declined when animals were fed diets containing 1000 to 25 IU VD3/kg (9-11 wk, inflection at 200 IU/kg, 4-fold steeper slope below this). Neither body weight nor serum Ca were influenced by low-VD3 intake. However, mice fed the 25-IU/kg diet had lower serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3, duodenal calbindin D9k mRNA, bone mineral density, and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-24 hydroxylase mRNA, whereas renal CYP27B1 mRNA was elevated when rodents were fed <200 IU VD3/kg. These data reveal a stress on VD3 and Ca metabolism at low dietary VD3 intake. Dietary Ca restriction (0.25 vs. 0.5%, 9 wk) increased serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3 and was 30% greater in rats fed a 10,000-IU VD3/kg diet. High-VD3 intake did not prevent Ca restriction-induced bone loss. Our data show that modeling human VD3 status requires lower intake than the current NRC rodent requirement (1000-IU/kg diet). Also, although rodents are very tolerant of high-VD3 intake, it cannot compensate for moderate Ca restriction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1114-1120
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume138
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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