Service level agreements (SLAs) parameter negotiation between heterogeneous 4G wireless network operators

Mohsin Iftikhar, Bjorn Landfeldt, Sherali Zeadally, Albert Zomaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


We are currently witnessing a growing interest of network operators to migrate their existing 2G/3G networks to 4G technologies such as long-term evolution (LTE) to enhance the user experience and service opportunities in terms of providing multi-megabit bandwidth, more efficient use of radio networks, latency reduction, and improved mobility. Along with this, there is a strong deployment of packet data networks such as those based on IEEE 802.11 and 802.16 standards. Mobile devices are having increased capabilities to access many of these wireless networks types at the same time. Reinforcing quality of service (QoS) in 4G wireless networks will be a major challenge because of varying bit rates, channel characteristics, bandwidth allocation and global roaming support among heterogeneous wireless networks. As a mobile user moves across access networks, to the issue of mapping resource reservations between different networks to maintain QoS behavior becomes crucial. To support global roaming and interoperability across heterogeneous wireless networks, it is important for wireless network operators to negotiate service level agreement (SLA) contracts relevant to the QoS requirements. Wireless IP traffic modeling (in terms of providing assured QoS) is still immature because the majority of the existing work is merely based on the characterization of wireless IP traffic without investigating the behavior of queueing systems for such traffic. To overcome such limitations, we investigate SLA parameter negotiation among heterogeneous wireless network operators by focusing on traffic engineering and QoS together for 4G wireless networks. We present a novel mechanism that achieves service continuity through SLA parameter negotiation by using a translation matrix, which maps QoS parameters between different access networks. The SLA matrix composition is modeled analytically based on the G/M/1 queueing system. We evaluate the model using two different scheduling schemes and we derive closed form expressions for different QoS parameters for performance metrics such as packet delay and packet loss rate. We also develop a discrete event simulator and conduct a series of simulation experiments in order to understand the QoS behavior of corresponding traffic classes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)525-544
Number of pages20
JournalPervasive and Mobile Computing
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback which helped us to improve the quality of this paper. We would also like to thank Professor Mine Caglar for her contributions and input on the modeling portion of this work. This research work is supported by National Plan for Science and Technology (NPST) grant ( 10-INF1112-02 ) at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .


  • 3G
  • 4G
  • CDMA2000
  • LTE
  • QoS
  • Queuing systems
  • Self-Similar
  • UMTS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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