Sex-based differences in effector cells of the adaptive immune system during Alzheimer's disease and related dementias

Jenny Lutshumba, Donna M. Wilcock, Nancy L. Monson, Ann M. Stowe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias (ADRD) present with many challenges due to the heterogeneity of the related disease(s), making it difficult to develop effective treatments. Additionally, the progression of ADRD-related pathologies presents differently between men and women. With two-thirds of the population affected with ADRD being women, ADRD has presented itself with a bias toward the female population. However, studies of ADRD generally do not incorporate sex-based differences in investigating the development and progression of the disease, which is detrimental to understanding and treating dementia. Additionally, recent implications for the adaptive immune system in the development of ADRD bring in new factors to be considered as part of the disease, including sex-based differences in immune response(s) during ADRD development. Here, we review the sex-based differences of pathological hallmarks of ADRD presentation and progression, sex-based differences in the adaptive immune system and how it changes with ADRD, and the importance of precision medicine in the development of a more targeted and personalized treatment for this devastating and prevalent neurodegenerative condition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106202
JournalNeurobiology of Disease
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • B lymphcoytes
  • Dementia
  • Estrogen
  • T lymphocytes
  • Tesosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology


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