Sex-Biased Expression and Response of microRNAs in Neurological Diseases and Neurotrauma

Urim Geleta, Paresh Prajapati, Adam Bachstetter, Peter T. Nelson, Wang Xia Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Neurological diseases and neurotrauma manifest significant sex differences in prevalence, progression, outcome, and therapeutic responses. Genetic predisposition, sex hormones, inflammation, and environmental exposures are among many physiological and pathological factors that impact the sex disparity in neurological diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a powerful class of gene expression regulator that are extensively involved in mediating biological pathways. Emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play a crucial role in the sex dimorphism observed in various human diseases, including neurological diseases. Understanding the sex differences in miRNA expression and response is believed to have important implications for assessing the risk of neurological disease, defining therapeutic intervention strategies, and advancing both basic research and clinical investigations. However, there is limited research exploring the extent to which miRNAs contribute to the sex disparities observed in various neurological diseases. Here, we review the current state of knowledge related to the sexual dimorphism in miRNAs in neurological diseases and neurotrauma research. We also discuss how sex chromosomes may contribute to the miRNA sexual dimorphism phenomenon. We attempt to emphasize the significance of sexual dimorphism in miRNA biology in human diseases and to advocate a gender/sex-balanced science.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2648
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • X chromosome
  • miR-223-3p
  • microRNA
  • neurodegenerative diseases
  • sex biased
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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