Sex-specific effects of AGT-6 and ACE I/D on pulse pressure after 6 months on antihypertensive treatment: The GenHAT Study

A. I. Lynch, Donna K. Arnett, B. R. Davis, E. Boerwinkle, C. E. Ford, J. H. Eckfeldt, C. Leiendecker-Foster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Research suggests pulse pressure (PP) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and genes likely influence PP levels. Additionally, gender may be an effect modifier between PP and cardiovascular disease. This study addresses whether two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) variants are associated with PP in a sex-specific manner (genotype-by-sex interaction). Subjects comprised 35,048 GenHAT study participants over 55 years old, approximately half were women and half non-Hispanic white. Blood pressure measurements were obtained 6 months after randomization to one of four antihypertensive medications. The polymorphisms considered were AGT-6 and ACE-I/D. We employed linear regression to assess the interaction. AGT-6 showed a significant (p < 0.001) genotype-by-sex interaction. Men with the 'G/G' genotype had a higher PP (0.6 mm HG) than men carrying an 'A' allele, while 'G/G' women had a lower PP (0.7 mm Hg) than women carrying an 'A' allele. Three of the four treatment groups (chlorthalidone, amlodipine and lisinopril) suggested a consistent interaction in sub-group analyses (only amlodipine was statistically significant, p < 0.001), whereas doxazosin did not. The interaction was evident among non-Hispanic participants but not among Hispanic participants. For ACE-I/D no evidence for a genotype-by-sex interaction was detected. This finding of genotype-by-sex interaction on PP helps our understanding of the complexity of genetic effects on blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)735-745
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Human Genetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2007


  • ACE
  • AGT
  • Blood pressure
  • Gene-sex interaction
  • Pulse pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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