Signaling mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance to microbial pathogens

M. B. Shine, Xueqiong Xiao, Pradeep Kachroo, Aardra Kachroo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations

Abstract

Plants respond to biotic stress by inducing a variety of responses, which not only protect against the immediate diseases but also provide immunity from future infections. One example is systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides long-lasting and broad-spectrum protection at the whole plant level. The induction of SAR prepares the plant for a more robust response to subsequent infections from related and unrelated pathogens. SAR involves the rapid generation of signals at the primary site of infection, which are transported to the systemic parts of the plant presumably via the phloem. SAR signal generation and perception requires an intact cuticle, a waxy layer covering all aerial parts of the plant. A chemically diverse set of SAR inducers has already been identified, including hormones (salicylic acid, methyl salicylate), primary/secondary metabolites (nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, glycerol-3-phosphate, azelaic acid, pipecolic acid, dihyroabetinal), fatty acid/lipid derivatives (18 carbon unsaturated fatty acids, galactolipids), and proteins (DIR1-Defective in Induced Resistance 1, AZI1-Azelaic acid Induced 1). Some of these are demonstrably mobile and the phloem loading routes for three of these SAR inducers is known. Here we discuss the recent findings related to synthesis, transport, and the relationship between these various SAR inducers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-86
Number of pages6
JournalPlant Science
Volume279
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank all members (past and present) of the Kachroo (A. and P.) laboratories who contributed to SAR related work. Our SAR-related work is funded by the National Science Foundation (IOS# 0749731 , #051909 ), Kentucky Soybean Board and the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation ( KSF-2923-RDE-016 ). The information reported in this article (No.18-12-002) is part of a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director.

Funding Information:
We thank all members (past and present) of the Kachroo (A. and P.) laboratories who contributed to SAR related work. Our SAR-related work is funded by the National Science Foundation (IOS# 0749731, #051909), Kentucky Soybean Board and the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation (KSF-2923-RDE-016). The information reported in this article (No.18-12-002) is part of a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

Keywords

  • Chemical inducers
  • Defense response
  • Pathogen resistance
  • Systemic signaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

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