Significance of the heating rate on the physical properties of carbonized maple wood

Xinfeng Xie, Barry Goodell, Yuhui Qian, Michael Peterson, Jody Jellison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Effects of the heating rate on the physical properties of carbonized wood were investigated by comparing the dimensional shrinkage, electrical resistivity, Young's modulus, and the evolution of turbostratic crystallites in maple hardwood samples carbonized at 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C under heating regimes of 3°C h-1 and 60°C h-1. Important carbonized wood properties that developed at high temperature and high heating rates could also be produced at slow heating rates and lower temperatures. Furthermore, slow heating rates promoted the formation and growth of graphene sheets in turbostratic crystallites, which had a significant influence on the electrical resistivity and Young's modulus of the carbonized wood. The results indicate that the graphene sheets of turbostratic crystallites formed during wood carbonization were arranged parallel to the axial direction of wood cells and at an angle to the circumference of wood cells in the cross-sectional plane. With regard to the production of carbon products, a decrease in the heating rate may be beneficial for char properties and the prevention of crack production during manufacture of large monolithic carbon specimens from wood and wood-based materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-596
Number of pages6
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
versity of Maine in XRD experimental and analysis work. This study was funded by the Wood Utilization Research (WUR) program at the University of Maine. This is publication 3009 of the Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station.


  • Carbonization
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Heating rate
  • Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)
  • Shrinkage
  • Young's modulus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials


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